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APA System

APA Style was first developed 80 years ago by a group of social scientists who wished to establish sound standards of communication. It is now widely used by the Psychology profession and other related disciplines.

Psychology students should use the APA edition specified by academic staff.

Up-to-date guidelines are laid out in the seventh edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association which is available in the Library. The full APA Style guide covers information on writing style and display of scientific results as well as citation and referencing.

Publication Manual Image


The Library holds copies of the manual as well as supporting APA publications which can be found using Library Search. Further information and links can be found on the Psychology Subject Guide

Additional guidance is available from the APA Style website. The APA site includes information on the main differences between the 6th and 7th (.pdf).

Please note that this is generic information. It is important to follow any course-specific guidelines for referencing.

Managing your references:

RefWorks is a bibliographic management service accessible via the Library website which can help you keep track of your references and create reference lists in the APA style. You will need to register the first time you use RefWorks. Full details can be found on our RefWorks page. RefWorks contains pre-set styles for both APA 6th edition and APA 7th edition.
Page Last Reviewed: 30th October 2020.